The 57-year-old could be seen being helped from his seat at the St Petersburg Stadium, before collapsing into a chair inside the stadium.
He was immediately attended to by Russian paramedics and was transported to a local hospital shortly afterwards.
Maradona had earlier been filmed manically celebrating Marcos Rojo’s late winning goal and swearing at supporters and was branded a “laughing stock” by BBC presenter Gary Linker.
As television cameras swung his way, seconds after the ball hit the back of Nigeria’s net, Maradona thrust middle-finger gestures with both hands.
“There’s Diego Maradona celebrating,” said Lineker. “I think he might make the papers for a different kind of celebration, there’s a danger he’s becoming a laughing stock I’m afraid.
“[He’s] let himself down with that celebration. You understand how he’s euphoric, but this kind of reaction… Really, Diego?”
Former England and Manchester United defender Rio Ferdinand was also less impressed with Maradona’s antics. “His career as a football player on the pitch was up there with the best,” added pundit Rio Ferdinand.
“Unfortunately there are moments like this that do arise it’s not nice to see that let him down.”